Mining machinery classification (worthy collection)

Date: 2019-07-10 Views:

Mining machinery is a machine that is directly used for operations such as mineral mining and rich selection. Including mining machinery and mineral processing machinery. The working principle and structure of the prospecting machinery are mostly the same or similar to those used in the mining of similar minerals. In a broad sense, the prospecting machinery also belongs to mining machinery. In addition, a large number of cranes, conveyors, ventilators and drainage machinery are used in mining operations.

Classification of mining machinery


Crushing equipment

The crushing equipment is the mechanical equipment used to crush the minerals.

The crushing operation is usually divided into coarse crushing, medium crushing and fine crushing according to the size of the feeding and discharging granularity. Common sand and gravel equipment include jaw crusher, impact crusher, impact crusher, composite crusher, single-stage hammer crusher, vertical crusher, gyratory crusher, cone crusher, roller crusher. Machine, double roll crusher, two-in-one crusher, one-time crusher, etc.

According to the crushing method and the mechanical structural characteristics (action principle), they are roughly classified into six categories.

(1) Jaw crusher (Tiger mouth). The crushing action is to periodically press the movable jaw to the fixed jaw to crush the ore that is sandwiched therein.

(2) Cone crusher. The ore block is between the inner and outer cones, the outer cone is fixed, and the inner cone is eccentrically oscillated to crush or break the nugget sandwiched therein.

(3) Roller crusher. The nugget is mainly subjected to continuous crushing in the entanglement of two oppositely rotating round rolls, but it also has a grinding and peeling effect, and the toothed roll surface also has a mashing effect.

(4) Impact crusher. The nuggets are crushed by the impact of the rapidly rotating moving parts. In this category can be divided into: hammer crusher; cage crusher; impact crusher.

(5) Grinding machine. The ore is crushed by the impact and grinding action of the grinding medium (steel ball, steel bar, gravel or nugget) in a rotating cylinder.

(6) Other types of crushing mills.

2. Mining machinery

Mining machinery is the mechanical equipment used to directly mine useful minerals and mining operations, including: mining machinery for mining metal ores and non-metallic ores; coal mining machinery for mining coal; and oil drilling machinery for oil extraction. The first pneumatic disk shearer was designed by British engineer Walker and was manufactured in about 1868. In the 1880s, hundreds of oil wells in the United States were successfully drilled with steam-powered impact drills. In 1907, oil and gas wells were drilled with a roller rig and used in open pit drilling since 1937. .

3. Mining machinery

Mining machinery used in underground and open pit mining include: drilling machinery for drilling holes; excavating machinery and loading and unloading machinery for excavating ore; drilling machinery for drilling patios, shafts and flats.

4. Drilling machinery

The drilling machine is divided into two types: rock drill and drilling rig. The drilling rig has the distinction of open drilling rig and underground drilling rig.

1 Rock drill: used to drill blastholes with a diameter of 20~100mm and a depth of 20m in the rock above medium hardness. According to their different powers, they can be divided into pneumatic, internal combustion, hydraulic and electric rock drills. Among them, pneumatic rock drills are the most widely used.

2 Surface drilling rig: According to the working mechanism of broken ore rock, it is divided into steel rope impact drilling machine, down-the-hole drilling machine, cone drilling machine and rotary drilling machine. Steel rope impact drills have gradually been replaced by other drills due to their low efficiency.

3 Downhole drilling rig: When drilling a downhole blasthole with a hole diameter of less than 150 mm, a small diameter borehole drill of 80 to 150 mm can be applied in addition to the rock drill.

4. Tunneling machinery

The axial pressure and the rotational force of the tool are used to crush the rock surface, and directly break the roadway or the well-forming machinery of the rock. The knives used have disc hobs, wedge hobs, ball hobs and milling tools. According to the different roadway, it is divided into a patio rig, a shaft rig and a tunnel boring machine.

1Patio drilling rig, which is specially used for drilling patios and chutes. Generally, it does not need to enter the patio operation. The cone hole is used to drill the pilot hole first, and the reamer composed of the disc hob is used to ream the hole.

2 Shaft drilling rig is specially used for drilling a well at a time, consisting of drilling system, slewing device, derrick, drilling rig lifting system and mud circulation system.

3 leveling well drilling machine, which is a comprehensive mechanized equipment that combines mechanical rock breaking and slagging processes and continuously excavates. It is mainly used for engineering tunnels in coal roads and soft mines and Zhongping of medium-hardness ore. Lane excavation.

5. Coal mining machinery

Coal mining has evolved from semi-mechanical in the 1950s to comprehensive mechanization in the 1980s. Comprehensive mechanized coal mining is widely used in shallow deep-seated double (single) drum combined coal mining machine (or plow), flexible scraper conveyor and hydraulic self-moving brackets, etc., so that the mining face is broken and coaled, loaded Coal, transportation, support and other links to achieve comprehensive comprehensive mechanization. The double drum shearer is a coal falling machine. The electric motor transmits the power to the spiral drum to drop coal through the cutting part of the reducer, and the movement of the machine is realized by the electric motor passing through the traction part transmission device. There are basically two types of traction, namely anchor chain traction and anchorless chain traction. The anchor chain traction is achieved by the engagement of the sprocket of the traction portion with the anchor chain fixed to the conveyor.

6. Oil drilling

Land oil drilling and mining machinery. According to the mining process, it is divided into drilling machinery, oil recovery machinery, workover machinery and fracturing and acidification machinery that maintain high production of oil wells. Drilling machinery is a complete set of machinery for drilling or producing production wells for the development of oil or natural gas. Oil drilling rigs, including derricks, winches, power machines, mud circulation systems, block device systems, turntables, wellhead devices, and electrical control systems. The derrick is used for installing cranes, swimming blocks and large hooks, lifting other heavy objects up and down the drilling platform, and drilling the drilling tools in the well for drilling.

7. Mineral processing machinery

Mineral processing is the process of selecting useful minerals from the mineral raw materials collected, based on the differences in physical, physical, and chemical properties of various minerals. The process of implementing this process is called a beneficiation machine. The ore dressing machinery is divided into crushing, grinding, sieving, sorting (selection) and dewatering machinery according to the beneficiation process. Commonly used in crushing machinery are jaw crusher, gyratory crusher, cone crusher, roller crusher and impact crusher. The most widely used grinding machines are barrel mills, including rod mills, ball mills, gravel mills and ultra-fine lamination self-grinding machines. Inertial vibrating screens and resonant screens are commonly used in screening machines. Hydraulic classifiers and mechanical classifiers are classification machines that are widely used in wet grading operations. A full-section airlift microbubble flotation machine is commonly used in sorting flotation machines. The dewatering machine is more famous for its multi-frequency dewatering screen tailings dry discharge system. The most famous in the crushing and grinding system is the ultra-fine lamination self-grinding machine.

8. Drying machinery

The special slime dryer is a new type of special drying equipment developed on the basis of the drum dryer. It can be widely used in:

1. Drying of coal slurry, raw coal, flotation clean coal, mixed clean coal and other materials in the coal industry;

2. Drying of blast furnace slag, clay, bentonite, limestone, sand, quartz and other materials in the construction industry;

3. Drying of various metal concentrates, waste slag, tailings and other materials in the mineral processing industry;

4. Drying of non-heat sensitive materials in the chemical industry.

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